Given the nature of migratory species moving between range states, successful national implementation will depend on collaborations at a transboundary, regional and sub-regional levels.* Achieving effective conservation of migratory species requires cooperation between Range States sharing those ecosystems or situated along a migration route. Assessing which elements of implementation are better achieved through regional and transnational cooperation will be necessary. International support by operational UN entities and specialized agencies is also an important source of assistance for national implementation that NFPs might consider seeking. This section covers these international aspects of implementation and helps to identify key actors and major processes that will assist NFPs in developing their country strategies and applying for assistance for promoting their implementation.

*Article IV, paragraph 4 of the CMS encourages Parties to conclude agreements “for any population or any geographically separate part of the population of any species or lower taxon of wild animals, members of which periodically cross one or more national jurisdictional boundaries.” Many birds and mammals follow migratory routes along or using special ecosystems as resting and feeding areas.